ThyssenKrupp Fördertechnik hands over ‘Kohlelogistik’ to HKM/Duisburg
In December 2009, ThyssenKrupp Fördertechnik TKF (business
unit Materials Handling, St. Ingbert) handed over the new
‘Kohlelogistik’ to its client HKM Hüttenwerke Krupp
Mannesmann at Duisburg. This means that the existing coke
oven plant, built in 1984 for the production of about 1.1mt
(million tonnes) of coke per year, has been equipped with a new
belt conveyor and storage system which will allow the supply of
coking coal to the coke oven plant, whose future production
extension is planned to reach over 2.3mt of coke per year when
it is in automatic operation.
Previously, the coke oven plant had been supplied with coking
coal directly from the producer or from the plant’s own port via
rail delivery to the pit bin at the old stockyard. There, stacking
of the piles was carried out by means of a simple belt conveyor
system and wheeled loaders. For reclaiming from the piles, once
again use was made of the wheeled loaders, which fed the coal
onto the discharge belt conveyor. The new coal logistics
arrangement consists of a TKF grab crane installed in the port
for barge unloading, a stockyard with a fully automated slewing
stacker and two fully automatic portal scraper reclaimers, as well
as a pipe conveyor and connecting belt conveyors. In parallel, it
will also be possible to supply the new coal stockyard via the
existing coal delivery by rail, and combining different handling
and transport routes in the plant.
In addition to the coal supply itself to the stockyard, there is
also the possibility of emergency ore unloading from the port
conveyor via the transfer tower ET001 onto the existing belt
conveyor for ore TB18. The system also allows for the supply of
coal to HKM’s new pulverized-coal injection plant arranged at
the rear by making use of the port conveyor running in the
reverse direction.
The design concept for the plant construction had to comply
with very demanding specifications in respect of noise emissions
and explosion protection (ATEX guidelines). The acoustic design
of the plant had to take into account sound power levels which
were very low in connection with normal industrial installations,
in order to avoid any risks to the environment due to sound
emission from the new coal logistics plant, combined with the
noise emission from the already existing steel works. In order
to comply with the specifications, the individual plant
components were assessed in sound-intensity tests both prior
to and during the construction stage. In detail, a sound-intensity
measurement and study of the conveyor belt idlers was carried
out prior to selecting the respective supplier, and provision was
made for considerable sound insulation measures on the belt
drives and large machines. The most important target consisted
of avoiding the causes of sound formation as far as possible by
using appropriate primary measures.
At the same time, the required explosion protection of the
plant had to be ensured. Therefore, cladding the towers helped
to achieve both a sufficient sound insulation and an adequate
ventilation of the building to prevent coal dust explosions.
The following individual example will serve to clarify the level
of complexity resulting from a simultaneous adherence to sound
insulation and explosion protection specifications. In order to
reduce the noise from the running idlers and the transmission of
noise to the surrounding steel structure, the idler axles have
been supported in steel holders equipped with rubber caps.
During production, metal fibres were added to the rubber
compounds used for the cap fabrication, in order to create a
conductive support suitable for removing electrical charges and
to fulfil the specifications for the explosion protection.
The scope of supply for the new ‘Kohlelogistik’ also included
the building which is intended to be retrofitted with a coal mill
at a later stage. This building was installed as a steel girder
structure and was filled with sand-lime bricks for sound
insulation purposes. To protect the coal mill against increasing
wear, in the feed area to the mill, a roll
sizer in tower ES004 was installed to
keep oversize material and foreign
matter out.
When developing and designing the
new installation in the existing steel
works area, the original plant including
foundations, track systems, supports
and buildings had to be taken into
account as well as a future extension
of the plant. During the extensive
erection works, it was essential to
maintain regular operations and to
further ensure the coal supply to the
existing coke oven group. Demolition
of the old installations and construction
of the new ones had to be exactly
co-ordinated with each other.
The two sections ‘Kohlelogistik A
and B’ were completed in 2009 and
tested each for their reliability and
availability over the course of a threemonth
full-shift operation. Finally in
December 2009, it was possible to prove an availability of more
than 99% for the whole plant. After submitting the proof of
compliance with the officially fixed sound emission levels, and
fulfilment of the requirements with respect to the explosion
protection, the whole plant was taken over in full working order
by the coking division of HKM.
It is particularly notable that, above all, in view of the
operational need to always have available a reliable coal supply
to the steel works, the new construction and the retrofitting of
the existing coal logistics could only be carried out and achieved
on the basis of close co-operation between ThyssenKrupp
Fördertechnik and the ‘Hüttenwerke Krupp Mannesmann’ team.
Wieland vacuum cleaning systems for stacker/reclaimer halls
The modular concept of the industrial vacuum systems
from Wieland Lufttechnik GmbH & Co. KG’s means
that it is possible to constantly design new tailormade
A typical example is the use of a vacuum system in
bulk storage halls for cement, clinker, corn, feedstuffs,
gritting salt, fertilizer and so forth.
A lot of dust is created all over the storage hall when
different kinds of materials are spread by the stacker.
Transport routes, transport devices and conveyor belts
inside the storage hall can become extremely dirty,
which can have a negative effect on the efficiency of the
production process.
Moreover, costly raw material is wasted.
Wieland Lufttechnik has developed a vacuum cleaning system
that has been designed according to the design of the storage
hall. At the heart of the vacuum system is a vacuum pump with
a cyclone filter hopper. The extracted material is discharged
onto a conveyor belt or a bucket elevator.
For flexible handling, a fixed pipework system is installed
along critical points inside the storage hall. Suction inlets
mounted at certain distances mean that it is possible to connect
highly flexible suction hoses for thorough cleaning.
The collected material which is returned to the production
process means that the vacuum system soon pays for itself.
Regular cleaning of the mechanical components of the conveyor
equipment inside the storage hall minimizes maintenance costs
and machine downtime as there is a drastic reduction in the
wear-and-tear caused by adhesive material.
It is also possible to connect a truck- or trailer-mounted
vacuum unit to the suction pipeline instead of the stationary
vacuum pump.
Compared with manual cleaning using traditional means like
brush and shovel, the use of vacuum equipment is considerably
faster, more efficient and more economical. An important reason
to use a vacuum cleaning system is the reduced physical stress
for staff members who are constantly exposed to airborne dust.
The vacuum system is even heatable in case
hygroscopic material is being extracted which
might create lumps inside. The system is
also available in stainless steel for
feeding stuff, animal food or similar.
This is only one example of many
possible fields of application of Wieland
Lufttechnik GmbH & Co. KG’s industrial
vacuum systems.
Wieland Lufttechnik GmbH & Co. KG is a
specialist in equipment for the cement, steel
and fertilizer industries as well as for power
plants and cleaningcontractor companies.
Schade cleans up down under — coal preparation plants
Schade Lagertechnik (Aumund Group) has been established in
the Australian coal mining and wash plant operations since the
late 1970s having supplied a wide range of both longitudinal and
circular storage systems include some of the largest chain
scraper type reclaimers ever built.
An excellent example being the new ‘Coal Preparation Plant’
recently commissioned at the Blackwater mine of BMA as part
of a $ 234 million dollar expansion programme to extend the
mine output up to 14mt (million tonnes) per annum, and, at the
same time improve efficiency and reduce operating cost.
Jointly owned with Mitsubishi Development Pty Ltd, BHP
Billiton Mitsubishi Alliance (BMA) is Australia’s largest coal miner
and exporter, and the world’s largest supplier to the seaborne
coking coal market.
BMA’s mines are located in the coal rich Bowen Basin of
Central Queensland and are mostly open-cut, using dragline and
truck/shovel fleets for overburden removal. Coal seams are
mined by front end loader and hydraulic excavators, and coal is
transported to mine preparation plants by large-capacity haul
Blackwater is one of the largest open-cut coal mines in
Australia, producing both coking and thermal coal. The mine is
located 24km south of the town of Blackwater and 315km west
of the port of Gladstone.
Barclay Mowlem/Roberts Schaefer Joint Venture (BM/RS JV)
was awarded the design and construction contract for the
complete projects from extraction at the mine to train load out.
A variety of very large dump trucks and bellydumpers are
used to transport the coal to the preparation plant ROM intake
hoppers, such as the giant Komatsu 930 series with a payload of
some 290 tonnes.
The trucks discharge to either of 3 x 600-tonne ROM
hoppers. Coal is fed from the ROM hoppers, via apron feeder
through three stages of crushing where it is reduced from a
maximum lump size of 1,200mm down to a manageable 50mm.
From the gravity-fed crushing station the coal is raised by
two belt conveyors to the preparation plant intake where it is
diverted to the circular raw coal storage.
The Schade circular storage has a capacity of 60,000 tonnes
and is designed for a handling rate of 2,200tph (tonnes per
In addition to providing a buffer storage capacity the Schade
circular storage system also provides very effective blending of
the raw coal before it is passed to the dual module wash plant
which is designed to operate at 1,800tph.
Whilst for this plant the circular storage design was the
preferred layout in other operations in Australia longitudinal
stockpiles and blending beds are supplied such as for the recent
Dawson and Lake Lindsay projects based on a travelling and
luffing boom stacker system as on p63.
With the longitudinal stockpile a conventional bridge type
reclaimer may be employed, as illustrated above.
The longitudinal and circular type bridge reclaimer systems
operate on the same basic principle except for the longitudinal
versions the equipment may reclaim from either side of the
The fundamental principle of blending is the same regardless
of the machine configuration.
That is the boom stacker lays down the coal in layers starting
close to the ground level and travelling continuously along back
and forth over the desired working zone.
As illustrated above the stacker boom starts at low level and
builds a stockpile the full length of the available stacking area
using a level detector to initiate the long travel drive for a timed
After the first pass the boom level is raised a pre-determined
increment and the operation is repeated creating another layer
above the first. This is illustrated in the diagram above showing
the bridge reclaim chain scraper conveyor recovering the
stockpile from the base level.
Since the stockpile is built up in layers from every sample that
is delivered then at any cross section of the stockpile there will
be elements of every sample throughout the depth of the
section. Also, since the larger lumps naturally flow to the outside
of the stockpile then these lumps will be equally present across
the full width of the stockpile base and not only at the edges.
To ensure the material recovered by the chain scraper
conveyor contains samples from every layer of the stockpile a
reciprocating harrow with steel tines is employed moving back
and forth across the full stockpile face and set to follow the
natural angle of repose of the coal.
The pitch of the steel times increases towards the base to
ensure the flow rate to the reclaimer is uniform. In the
illustration provided the reclaimer chain conveyor is swept up at
the discharge to raise the coal onto the yard belt running beside
the stockpile. This feature is important since it eliminates the
need for any complex concrete foundations and allows the
discharge conveyor to be mounted at the same level as the
reclaimer rails to reduce cost and foundation complication.
Illustrated above is the bridge reclaimer at the Lake Lindsay
mine showing the reciprocating harrow on the repose slope of
the coal stockpile. See also the yard conveyor located at ground
level with no special concrete interface, only a travelling hopper
and feed boot connects the reclaimer to the conveyor
For these huge mining operations feeding the major bulk
ports of Queensland from mainly the Bowen Basin coal reserves
Schade has supplied some of the largest portal reclaimers ever
The largest units are with twin booms as illustrated below
with a design reclaim capacity of 3,700tph of coal from both
booms to a single yard belt.
The portal reclaimer is generally used in product coal storage
at the wash plant with a high capacity to load out to trains
continuously capable of loading a 7,000-tonne train in 1.4 hours
Pictured on p65 at the Anglo Coal operation Dawson Mine
two sets of reclaimers were supplied complete with radial boom
stacker as shown below.
These stackers have a boom length of 49 metres and a design
handling rate of 2,400tph to satisfy the trend towards very highcapacity
centralized preparation plant able to service a number
of local mining operations using conveyors or mobile plant to
bring to coal to the prep. plant. In this manner a single train
load out and a single rail connection may service a number of
mine sites simplifying the logistics operation and maximizing the
railroad utilization factor.
Whilst generally for the best homogenization of the blended
coal the bridge reclaimer blending bed concept is the preferred
solution the portal reclaimer may also deliver efficient blending.
Using a slewing and luffing stacker system the stockpile may
be built up in layers in a manner similar to that employed with
the blending bed.
Using the slewing boom the first pass of the stockpile may be
created at low level close to the stacker rails as shown above.
On the second pass the stacker boom must be raised and
slewed out incrementally to generate an extended stockpile
building what is effectively an extra inclined slice shown in
different shades in the diagram.
When the reclaimer passes over the stockpile taking a thin
slice from the full inclined surface of the stockpile this slice will
contain elements of every sample delivered to the stacker and
therefore represent an effective blend.
Pictured above, right, is an example of an early twin boom
reclaimer supplied to the Dartbrook Mine located in the Hunter
Valley. Here you can see the reclaimers taking a thin slice off the
stockpile surface working along the stockpile using the variable
speed long travel drive to adjust the output rate.
Using a longitudinal stockpile arrangement and a slewing
boom stacker a single stacker may service two parallel stockpiles
as illustrated below.
The boom stacker for this operation is similar to the units as
previously described pictured here building the coal product
stockpile, see also the circular storage in the background.
As for the bridge reclaimer the portal reclaimer may be
supplied with a raised discharge to simplify the feeding of
material to the yard conveyor as shown below.
principle is the same for the twin boom design.
All of the Schade reclaimers use a special chain and shovel
design unique to Schade and designed specifically for operation
as a reclaimer and for the required duty.
Illustrated above at the Dawson mine a special design of
outboard roller chain is employed using ball bearing rollers
mounted to extended chain pins. For these high-capacity
operations very large close pitch shovels are supplied of around
3.0 metres in width.
This arrangement is well demonstrated in a brand new
installation of a circular storage and bridge reclaimer below.
As you can see in both of these illustrations the position of
the shovel is close to the chain centre and therefore the
overturning moment applied to the chain by the resistance of
the shovel is significantly reduced compared to many
contemporary designs giving increased chain life by reduced
fatigue stress.
With these projects we have seen a combination of circular
and longitudinal storages and clearly each has its merits.
The circular storage is compact and efficient in terms of foot
print offering the greatest storage per square metre. Being
compact and circular it is easy to enclose using a Geodesic or
fabricated dome structure as illustrated above, right.
Since the entire weight of the stacker boom and the incoming
conveyor is supported on the central column the enclosure
structure may be very lightweight. Enclosed stockpiles may not
be of great interest at a mine site but, as we shall discuss, this is
often hypercritical for a power plant.
The circular storage has a further operational advantage in
that the stacking operation can be continuous with the stacker
boom effectively following the reclaimer around the storage
offering the possibility of eliminating any break in the material
input or output necessary for equipment repositioning.
On the other side of the argument longitudinal storages have
no limit on size and may be simply extended to increase the
stockpile capacity. Where ground space is not at a premium the
flexibility of the longitudinal design may be very attractive.
Clearly with the longitudinal bridge reclaimers shown here in
blending bed arrangements, the flexibility of the equipment may
be an issues since clearly the reclaimer cannot travel over the
Using two reciprocating harrows one reclaimer may service
two stockpiles but no more. If multiple discrete stockpiles are
required in a longitudinal configuration then multiple reclaimers
are required for maximum flexibility.
However, Schade has a solution by combining the benefits of
the portal design with a bridge/harrow design into a single unit,
as we see below installed at Camberwell Coal in Australia.
Opened in May 1991 the Camberwell mine is located in the
Hunter Valley.
This design comprises a bridge type reclaimer arrangement
mounted to a portal frame and hinged in the normal way to
allow the boom to be raised above the stockpile when travelling.
The conventional fabricated harrow frame with tines is
replaced by a triangular hinged structure supporting a harrow
formed by a row of steel tines fixed to wire ropes. These are
fixed to the reclaimer boom to rise up when the boom is lifted
clear of the stockpile for travelling.
The wire ropes are arranged to move the steel tines across
the stockpile face and dislodge the coal bringing it down to the
reclaimer scraper conveyor in the same manner as a typical
bridge structure.
When in operation the scraper boom is positioned
horizontally and the wire-rope-harrow positioned to following
the stockpile face providing an homogenized output to the yard
conveyor of exactly the same quality as the conventional design.
Using this system the Portal-Bridge-Reclaimer may jump over
discrete stockpiles laid down longitudinally to reclaim from any
area whilst leaving the remaining section intact, as shown above.
Using this method with one unit per run of individual
stockpiles any combination of materials form any stockpile
section in lanes 1, 2, 3 or 4 may be brought together or
reclaimed individually offering the maximum possible flexibility.
Naturally all mechanical equipment, however well engineered,
has a finite lifetime and Schade offers comprehensive support for
the re-building and upgrading the existing machines and
equipment, even if not originally built by Schade.
Typically as illustrated above a bridge reclaimer, installed at
W.D.T. Curragh in Australia, for blending coal was rebuilt and
upgraded from 1,200tph to 1,800tph including new chains,
sprockets, scraper-shovels, wear strips and chain drive unit.
However, the existing frame was re-used, and at a fraction of the
cost and disruption of a complete replacement.
Once the coal is loaded to the train and then exported from
the many dedicated coal terminals you may think that is the end
of the story of Schade and Australian coal... but it is not.
The bulk of the coal from Australia is imported as thermal
coal to power electricity generating plant throughout Asia but
particularly in China.
It is in China that Schade has been particularly successful with
the rapidly expanding power industry linked to waterborne
import generally from deep sea vessels of Capesize, typically
150,000 tonnes and over.
Hua Yang is just one example of 50 units supplied now by
Schade in China handling coal for power plants.
As can be seen above, right, coal is imported from Capesize
vessels by continuous ship dischargers and transferred by
conveyor inland to the power plant circular storage.
Within the storage dome there is a massive Schade circular
stacker and reclaimer system as illustrated below, in this case
with a holding capacity of around 250,000m3 per unit.
From the wharf coal is discharged to the stacking conveyor
which is supported to the central column with an independent
slew ring allowing full 360° rotation.
With a conveyor belt width of 2,000mm and speed of 3.5
metres per second the stacker is rated at 4,000tph continuously
with a 10% surge overload capability.
In this installation the maximum stockpile depth of 33.6
metres is attained by using an external retaining wall of depth
18.5 metres and an effective stacking radius of 40 metres.
The stockpile is generated automatically using the coneshell
method with the stacker boom operating at a pre-set discharge
height, as illustrated opposite with a typical cantilevered
reclaimer boom also all from the central column.
These enormous circular storages are at the cutting edge of
today’s coal stockpiling and reclaim technology but the principle
can be applied to smaller systems and over the last 60 years
Schade has developed a wide range of designs for all
Naturally, performance and quality are paramount in this
industry but economy and efficiency in design and construction
are also critical in the very price conscious market we operate
in today.
Responding to these pressures Schade has adopted the
Aumund Group business model combining German engineering
standards with least cost manufacturing locations, commensurate
with effective quality control, demonstrating that, with now over
600 installations worldwide, quality, reliability, performance and
economy need not be mutually exclusive demands.
Another Aumund Group success story.
Custom-engineered transfer chutes improve conveyor loading, reduce blockages
Conveyor systems are an integral and vital part of a working
bulk materials stockyards. Now a major supplier of bulk
materials handling equipment has introduced custom-engineered
transfer chutes, helping to deliver material control from the time
it leaves the conveyor discharge pulley until it reaches the
receiving belt. By managing the material speed and direction,
Martin® Inertial FlowTM transfer chutes can minimize impact and
wear on liners and belts, while containing the dust and spillage
that are often generated at transfer points.
The engineered flow chutes employ special geometries that
capture and concentrate the material stream as it travels
through the chute. Every design is tailored to suit the specific
material characteristics and conveyor systems of the individual
customer, rather than using stock products and attempting to
make them work. Inertial flow transfer chutes from Martin
Engineering provide the dual benefits of minimizing aeration and
preventing buildup within the chute, particularly important when
dealing with combustible materials.
“Transfer points should never be a production bottleneck,”
commented Martin Product development engineer Justin
Malohn. “By testing the customer’s specific bulk material and
applying those properties as the initial step in chute design, we
can develop a transfer that meets capacity while minimizing the
potential for build-up and chute plugging,” he said.
Martin inertial flow transfer chutes also incorporate
replaceable liners, allowing operators to unbolt the enclosure for
Custom-engineered transfer chutes improve conveyor loading, reduce blockages
simplified replacement of worn components without confined
space entry.
Engineered chutes typically employ a ‘hood and spoon’ transfer,
with the hood discharge chute at the top of the system and a
spoon receiving chute to place material onto the belt being
loaded. Martin Engineering components are custom-designed to
suit the characteristics of the conveyed product and the
materials used for chute construction.
“The hood minimizes expansion of the material stream,
directing it downward,” Malohn explained. “The spoon provides
a curved loading chute for a smooth line of descent, consistently
feeding the material at a specific speed and direction to minimize
impact in the loading zone.”
The goal is to confine the material stream and reduce air
entrainment, while directing the moving material onto the
receiving belt with minimal impact. Successful designs reduces
spillage, abrasion, dust and premature wear. This control also
helps ensure that material is center-loaded on the belt, avoiding
mistracking and fugitive material.
To achieve the optimum hood, spoon and settling area,
engineered flow chutes from Martin Engineering are designed
using 3-D computer-based flow and modeling to define the
geometry. “The direction and force of impact should maintain as
much momentum as possible, ideally with an impact angle of no
more than 8–12°,” Malohn said.
Designers use detailed information about the specific material
characteristics and the parameters of the conveyor system itself,
including the feed system, belt properties, support structure and
transfer distances. Martin Engineering also has in-house
capability to perform comprehensive bulk material testing to
obtain critical friction values, using customer-specific materials,
belt construction and liner materials.
By controlling the velocity and force of impact in the load
zone to match the belt speed and direction, the engineered
systems mitigate material splash, turbulence and dust. The lowturbulence,
low-impact loading and controlled airflow can
eliminate the need for baghouse dust collection systems, and the
stable material path contributes to improved transfer, while
minimizing belt abrasion and spillage.
Founded in 1944, Martin Engineering specializes in making
bulk materials handling cleaner, safer and more productive. The
company is headquartered in Neponset, IL (USA), with global
reach from operations in Brazil, China, France, Germany,
Indonesia, Mexico, South Africa, Turkey and the UK. Martin
Engineering products are available from business units and
authorized representatives around the world.
Telestack mobile stockyard solutions — complete operational flexibility
Telestack Limited has enjoyed great success when installing
mobile coal handling equipment throughout the globe. The
overriding feature of the Telestack units is operational flexibility,
which is extremely successful in terms of enhancing and
maintaining production rates within the stockyard. Most
recently has been the manufacturing of a mobile reclaiming
hopper, to feed material directly back into the belt of a
stacker/reclaimer. Currently, the customer has three lines in the
stockyard consisting of 2 x stacker/reclaimers and 1 x stacker
only. However, when unloading vessels with the two unloading
cranes onto two of the lines, this only allows for one other for
either feeding the local power plant or loading trains for inland
transportation. This presents an operational ‘bottleneck’ and
reduces the operational capabilities and flexibility of the
operation. The mobile reclaim hopper (above, right) will be fed
via two front-end loading shovels (medium capacity). The
machine can be placed in the downstream from any of the three
lines even if the stacker/reclaimer or stacker is operating. This
greatly increases operational flexibility and allows for one line to
be redundant in case of routine maintenance.
The wheeled mobile (optional crawler tracked mounted)
reclaim hopper offers maximum flexibility for the operator. The
unit also includes a trimming chute which allows the customer
to direct the material to reduce segregation/degradation and
control the flow of material onto the belt in the same direction
as the stacker/reclaimer (see below). This is further enhanced
with the design and manufacture of a mobile feed-boot which
will fit over the current reclaiming belt to direct the material
into the centre of the belt and again reduce the dust emissions
at this transfer point.
Stockpile management is key to the success and profitability
of any stockyard system, with the aim to eliminate the use of
wheel loaders on site if stockpiling/unloading and the double
handling of material. As many stockyards incorporate fixed
stacker/reclaiming units as there primary stockpiling equipment,
Telestack’s range of stockpiling equipment can be used as an
alternative to these high equity machinery, while gaining the
same results. The radial and telescopic features of the conveyors
allows for complete operational flexibility, automatically
stockpiling up to heights of 18 metres (60 ft) @ 1,500tph
(tonnes per hour) ensures the production levels can be
sustained (see below).
The site mobility options include a tracked dolly unit which
allows for easy site mobility in harsh conditions to facilitate all
areas of the stockyard. Other possible options include wheeled
or rail-mounted equipment, as well as dust extraction/
suppression, independent power options, automatic stockpiling
programs and many more depending on the requirements of the
operation. Mobile stockpiling equipment can also provide a
reliable back-up system to fixed stacker/reclaiming in the event
of maintenance/ damage to ensure that production targets are
sustained. During the maintenance of these fixed plants, this
equipment would be invaluable to ensure production targets are
met and costs are minimized.
These units are designed to work in conjunction or replace
current operations using fixed stacker/reclaiming systems, but
will enhance the flexibility and mobility of the stockyard which is
a vital part of maintaining production rates.